Greek civilization has one of richest history in the world, the traces of which can be seen in the big number of museums and monuments all over Greek Islands. The people of the mainland, called Hellenes, organized great naval and military expeditions, and explored the Mediterranean and the Black Sea, going as far as the Atlantic Ocean and the Caucasus Mountains. One of those expeditions, the siege of Troy, is narrated in the first great European literary work, Homer's Iliad. Numerous Greek settlements were founded throughout the Mediterranean, Asia Minor and the coast of North Africa as a result of travels in search of new markets.
The ancient Greek history is better to be learnt by its mythology.
Greece is famous by its architecture. The ancient Greek's architecture is marked by different styles: The Ionic Style, Doric style, Corinthian style. The Ionic Style is an elegant one.,being used in the temple of Appolo at Didyma, Athena Nike and Elechtheum. The Doric Style is very strong, but at the same time simple- the temple of Parthenon. The temple of Oppollo at Bassae and the temple of Zeus are built in the Corinthian Style.
The Acropolis is the most famous building of Greece.
It is well - known ancient historical monument.
The ancient Greek word Acropolis means city on the hills. In the fifth century BC, the Panthenon and other main buildings on the Acropolis were built as a monument to the inhabitants of Athens.
The building was designed by the architects Kallikrates and Iktinos as the home of the giant statue of Athena. The main building was planed and built according to geometrical calculations.
Athens still has a lot of ruins of the glorious ancient city, which remained under groung. In time, due to the often earthquakes and changes in the ground shields, there were formed several layers attesting the rich history of this ancient civilization.
Everything that has dug out during the construction of the metro, has been exposed in the stations. So, people can visit a museum, while having a ride with the metro.
In the second half of the 4th century BC, the Greeks, led by Alexander The Great, conquered most of the then known world and sought to hellenize it.
In 146 BC Greece fell to the Romans. In 330 AD Emperor Constantine moved the Capital of the Roman Empire to Constantinople, founding the Eastern Roman Empire, which was renamed Byzantine Empire or Byzantium for short, by western historians in the 19th century. Byzantium transformed the linguistic heritage of Ancient Greece into a vehicle for the new Christian civilization. The Byzantine Empire fell to the Turks in 1453 and the Greeks remained under the Ottoman yoke for nearly 400 years. During this time their language, their religion and their sense of identity remained strong.
On March 25, 1821, the Greeks revolted against the Turks, and by 1828 they had won their independence. As the new state comprised only a tiny fraction of the country, the struggle for the liberation of all the lands inhabited by Greeks continued. In 1864, the Ionian Islands were returned to Greece; in 1881, parts of Epiros and Thessalia. Kriti, the islands of the Eastern Aegean and Makedonia were added in 1913 and Western Thraki in 1919. After World War II the Dodecanissos islands were also returned to Greece.
The Greece history continued for 4.000 years. Hellenes was the first people, who dominated the mainland and organized the greatest military and naval travels and expedite the Mediterranean and the Black Sea going far than Atlantic Ocean and the Caucasus Mountains. A very old European literary work, Homer's Iliad, narrated one of such expeditions. A great number of Greeks live throughout the Mediterranean, Asia Minor and the coast of North Africa.
Athens. St. Theodorus church / Byzantine periods.
In the 5th century B.C, Greece was formed of city-states. The biggest of them were located in Athens, Sparta and Thebes. Greeks crushed the Persians in remarkable fights, Marathon, Thermopylae, Salamis and Plataea.
In the 330 years A.D Emperor Constantine, moved to the capital of the Roman Empire, Constantinople, he found Eastern Roman Empire there, which was renamed by the historians of the 19th century as Byzantine Empire. It influenced a lot to the transformation of the linguistic heritage of Ancient Greece into the new Christian civilization.
In 1453 the Byzantine Empire was occupied by the Turks, and remained under its administration more than 400 years. During this period their language and religion did not suffer any grand changes.
On March 25, 1821, the Greeks rose up against the Turks, winning their independence by 1828. A very long time Greece struggled for its territory and returned the major part of it, as: Epiros and Thessalia in 1881. Kriti and Makedonia were added in 1913. At the end of the World War II the Dodecanissos islands were also returned to Greece.